You Sure You Want to Eat That? Perceived Consequences of Eating & Its Relation to Recovery

I recently had a total Aha! moment (or a why-didn’t-I-ever-think-of-it moment) when I had chanced upon a recently published article titled “Eating Expectancies in Relation to Eating Disorder Recovery” by Fitzsimmons-Craft and colleagues. The title caught my attention because I had never come across any research tying eating expectancies to eating disorders, though I was familiar with the concept from the health psychology and obesity literature. Eating, as a behaviour and as a mechanism, is incredibly complex, with many factors contributing to why and how we eat; eating expectancies are one such factor.

Expectancy theory, first proposed by Tolman (1932), suggests that expectancies, or assumptions about the consequences of various behaviours, develop as a result of one’s learning history (Smith et al., 2007). Such expectancies are thought to influence subsequent behavioural choices, with one acting to either increase the likelihood of reward … Continue reading →

Eating Disorders in the Elderly

The first published case of a late-onset eating disorder (at the age of 40) was in 1930 by John M. Berkman. In 1936, John A. Ryle published a case study of an eating disorder in a 59-year-old woman. Just how common are eating disorders in late middle-age or elderly individuals?

One study of 475 community dwelling elderly women aged 60–70 years found that 3.8% met diagnostic criteria for eating disorders. A study of elderly Canadian women reported that symptoms of disordered eating were present in 2.6% of women aged 50–64 years, and in 1.8% of women aged 65 years or older (Gadalla, 2008). In an investigation of eating disorders in elderly outpatient males, a minority (11–19%) who were undernourished were found to have abnormal eating attitudes and body image, including inappropriate self-control around food (60%), unsuitable eating attitudes (26%), and distorted body image (3–52%) (Miller et al., 1991).

There … Continue reading →