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5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid -  the major metabolite of serotonin present in the cerebrospinal fluid (14)
- Synonyms: 5-HIAA
a priori analysis -  statistical analyses specified in the trial protocol; that is, planned in advance of data collection (2)
- Synonyms: a priori analyses, planned analyses
a-b-a design -  experimental design in which participants first experience the baseline condition (a), then experience the experimental treatment (b), and then return to the baseline (a) (4)
- Synonyms: ABA design
acculturation -  extent to which a person identifies with his or her group of origin and its culture or with the mainstream dominant culture (14)
accuracy -  refers to the way in which we describe the attribute in which we are interested; for our measurement to be accurate, there must be a constant mathematical relationship between our measurement and the true value (7)
adjusted -  an analysis that controls (adjusts) for baseline imbalances in important patient characteristics (e.g., confounder) (2)
- Synonyms: adjusted analysis
adverse event -  an adverse event for which the causal relation between the drug/intervention and the event is at least a reasonable possibility; the term ‘adverse effect’ applies to all interventions, while ‘adverse drug reaction’ is used only with drugs (2)
- Synonyms: adverse reaction, adverse effects, adverse reactions, adverse events
affect -  in psychology, behavior that expresses a subjectively experienced feeling state (emotion); affect is responsive to changing emotional states (14)
alexithymia -  a disturbance in affective and cognitive function that overlaps diagnostic entities but is common is psychosomatic disorders, addictive disorders, and post traumatic stress disorder; the chief manifestations are difficulty in describing or recognizing one’s own emotions, a limited fantasy life, and general constriction in the affective life (14)
- Synonyms: alexithymic
amenorrhea -  abnormal absence or suppression of menses (1)
amnesia -  a failure of memory caused by physical injury, disease, drug use, or psychological trauma (4)
amygdala -  a part of the limbic system of the brain that is involved in regulating aggression and emotions, particularly fear, and the formation of emotional memory (5)
- Synonyms: amygdalae
anhedonia -  inability to experience pleasure from activities that usually produce pleasurable feelings; contrast with hedonism (14)
anxiolytic -  anxiety relieving (1)
applied research -  research that has "real-world" applications
arms -  in a controlled trial, refers to a group of participants allocated a particular treatment; many controlled trials have two arms, a group of participants assigned to an experimental intervention (treatment arm) and a group of participants assigned to a control (control arm) (2)
- Synonyms: treatment arm, control arm, treatment arms, control arms
attachment -  emotional relationship between a child and the regular caregiver (4)
attrition -  the loss of participants during the course of a study (2)
- Synonyms: loss to follow up, loss to follow-up
attrition bias -  systematic differences between comparison groups in withdrawals or exclusions of participants from the results of a study; for example, participants may drop out of a study because of side effects of an intervention, and excluding these participants from the analysis could result in an overestimate of the effectiveness of the intervention, especially when the proportion dropping out varies by treatment group (2)
autonomic nervous system -  the part of the nervous system that innervates the cardiovascular, digestive, reproductive, and respiratory organs; it operates outside of consciousness and controls basic life-sustaining functions such as heart rate, digestion, and breathing. It includes the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system (14)
- Synonyms: ANS
availability sampling -  a sample based on subjects who are available and willing to participate in the study; many experiments in psychology use undergraduates as subjects as they are cheap and easy to find (8)
basal metabolic rate -  an expression of the rate at which oxygen is used by body cells, or the calculated equivalent heat production by the body, in a fasting subject at complete rest (9)
- Synonyms: BMR
baseline characteristics -  values of demographic, clinical and other variables collected for each participant at the beginning of a trial, before the intervention is administered (2)
- Synonyms: baseline measures, baselines measurements, at baseline
behavior modification -  the systematic use of principles of learning to increase the frequency of desired behaviors and/or decrease the frequency of problem behaviors (4)
- Synonyms: behaviour modification, behavioural modification, behavioral modification
behaviorist perspective -  the psychological perspective primarily concerned with observable behavior that can be objectively recorded and with the relationships of observable behavior to environmental stimuli (4)
- Synonyms: behaviourist perspective
between subjects design -  an experimental design in which each subjects is randomly assigned to only one of the treatment conditions (8)
- Synonyms: between-subjects design, between subjects study, between-subjects study
bias -  in statistics, a systematic error or deviation in results or inferences from the truth; in studies of the effects of health care, the main types of bias arise from systematic differences in the groups that are compared (selection bias), the care that is provided, exposure to other factors apart from the intervention of interest (performance bias), withdrawals or exclusions of people entered into a study (attrition bias) or how outcomes are assessed (detection bias); reviews of studies may also be particularly affected by reporting bias, where a biased subset of all the relevant data is available (2)
- Synonyms: biased
biopsychosocial model -  a model of health and illness concerned with the biological, psychological, and social aspects of disease as opposed to strictly biomedical components
- Synonyms: biopsychosocial
blinding -  in a controlled trial, the process of preventing those involved in a trial from knowing to which comparison group a particular participant belongs; the risk of bias is minimised when as few people as possible know who is receiving the experimental intervention and who the control intervention; participants, caregivers, outcome assessors, and analysts are all candidates for being blinded (2)
- Synonyms: double blind, masking, triple blind, single blind, double blinded, single blinded
block randomization -  the most common technique for carrying out random assignment in the random groups design; each block includes a random order of the conditions and there are as many blocks as there are subjects in each condition of the experiment (6)
- Synonyms: block randomisation
body checking -  body checking refers to an obsessive thought and behavior about appearance (e.g., frequent weighing, looking in the mirror, and pinching) (15)
body image -  one’s sense of the self and one’s body (14)
bottom-up processing -  perceptual analyses based on the sensory data available in the environment; results of analyses are passed upward toward more abstract representations (4)
- Synonyms: bottom-up processes
bradycardia -  excessive slowness in the action of the heart, usually with a heart rate below 60 beats per minute (3)
case series -  a study reporting observations on a series of individuals, usually all receiving the same intervention, with no control group (2)
case study -  a study reporting observations on a single individual (2)
- Synonyms: anecdote, case history, case studies, single case report
case-control study -  a study that compares people with a specific disease or outcome of interest (cases) to people from the same population without that disease or outcome (controls), and which seeks to find associations between the outcome and prior exposure to particular risk factors (this design is particularly useful where the outcome is rare and past exposure can be reliably measured) (2)
causal effect -  an association between two characteristics that can be demonstrated to be due to cause and effect (i.e., a change in one causes the change in the other); causality can be demonstrated by experimental studies but not observational studies (2)
ceiling effect -  measurement problems whereby the researcher cannot measure the effects of an independent variable or a possible interaction because performance has reached a maximum or minimum in any condition of the experiment (6)
- Synonyms: floor effect, ceiling effects, floor effects
censored -  in survival analysis, a term used in studies where the outcome is the time to a particular event, to describe data from patients where the outcome is unknown; a patient might be known not to have had the event only up to a particular point in time, so ‘survival time’ is censored at this point (2)
central coherence -  central coherence refers to a cognitive style in which there is a bias towards local or detailed focus processing of information over the natural tendency to integrate information in a contextual way (15)
central nervous system -  the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord (4)
- Synonyms: CNS
cerebellum -  the region of the brain attached to the brain stem that controls motor coordination, posture, and balance as well as the ability to learn control of body movements (4)
cerebral cortex -  the convoluted surface layer of gray matter of the cerebrum that functions chiefly in coordination of sensory and motor information (3)
- Synonyms: cerebral cortices
cerebral hemispheres -  the two halves of the cerebrum, connected by the corpus callosum (4)
cerebrospinal fluid -  the fluid that cushions and nourishes the brain (5)
- Synonyms: CSF
cerebrum -  the region of the brain that regulates higher cognitive and emotional functions (4)
chromosomes -  physical structure consisting of DNA and supporting proteins called chromatin; human cells normally contain 46 chromosomes identified as 23 pairs; 22 pairs are autosomes and one pair are the sex chromosomes (3)
cis -  prefix or adjective that means not trans, derived from the Latin word for being on the same side (as opposed to across from); implies that one (for the most part) lives comfortably as their gender assigned at birth (17)
- Synonyms: cisgender
classical conditioning -  a type of learning in which a behavior (conditioned response) comes to be elicited by a stimulus (conditioned stimulus) that has acquired its power through an association with a biologically significant stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) (4)
clinical trial -  an experiment to compare the effects of two or more healthcare interventions; clinical trial is an umbrella term for a variety of designs of healthcare trials, including uncontrolled trials, controlled trials, and randomised controlled trials (2)
- Synonyms: clinical study, intervention study
clinically significant -  a result that is large enough to be of practical importance to patients and healthcare providers; this is not the same thing as statistically significant as assessing clinical significance takes into account factors such as the size of a treatment effect, the severity of the condition being treated, the side effects of the treatment, and the cost; for instance, if the estimated effect of a treatment for acne was small but statistically significant, but the treatment was very expensive, and caused many of the treated patients to feel nauseous, this would not be a clinically significant result (2)
- Synonyms: clinical significance, clinical relevance
cluster sampling -  the random selection of groups to represent the variety in the population (7)
co-morbidity -  the presence of one or more diseases or conditions other than those of primary interest (2)
- Synonyms: comorbid, co-morbid, comorbidity
coding -  naming items of data and setting them within classificatory frameworks (7)
cognition -  processes of knowing, including attending, remembering, and reasoning; also the content of the processes, such as concepts and memories (4)
- Synonyms: cognitive
cognitive appraisal -  with respect to emotions, the process through which physiological arousal is interpreted with respect to circumstances in the particular setting in which it is being experienced; also, the recognition and evaluation of a stressor to assess the demand, the size of the threat, the resources available for dealing with it, and appropriate coping strategies (4)
cognitive behavior modification -  a therapeutic approach that combines the cognitive emphasis on the role of thoughts and attitudes influencing motivations and response with the behavioral emphasis on changing performance through modification of reinforcement contingencies (4)
- Synonyms: cognitive behaviour modification, cognitive behavioral modification, cognitive behavioural modification, cognitive behavioral, cognitive behavioural
cognitive development -  the development of processes of knowing, including imagining, perceiving, reasoning, and problem solving (4)
cognitive psychology -  the study of higher mental processes such as attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, and thinking (4)
compulsion -  repetitive ritualistic behavior such as hand washing or ordering or a mental such as praying or repeating words silently that aims to prevent or reduce distress or prevent some dreaded event or situation; the person feels driven to perform such actions in response to an obsession or according to rules that must be applied rigidly, even though the behaviors are recognized to be excessive or unreasonable (14)
computed tomography -  a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body taken from different angles; the pictures are created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine (3)
- Synonyms: CT, CT scan
concordance -  in behavior genetics, the similarity in psychiatric diagnosis or in other traits within a pair of twins (14)
concordance rate -  probability that both twins will develop a disorder if one twin has the disorder (14)
concrete thinking -  thinking characterized by immediate experience, rather than abstractions; it may occur as a primary, developmental defect, or it may develop secondary to organic brain disease or schizophrenia (14)
concurrent validity -  extent to which a test yields the same results as other measures of the same phenomenon; as applied to psychiatric diagnosis, the extent to which previously undiscovered features are found among patients with the same diagnosis (14)
confidence interval -  indicates the range of values in which we can expect a population value to fall with a specified degree of confidence (e.g., .95); estimates are usually presented as a point estimate and a 95% confidence interval; this means that if someone were to keep repeating a study in other samples from the same population, 95% of the confidence intervals from those studies would contain the true value; wider intervals indicate lower precision; narrow intervals, greater precision (2)
- Synonyms: CI
confirmation bias -  the tendency to look for and accept evidence that supports what one wants to believe and to ignore or reject evidence that refutes those beliefs (5)
confound -  a factor that is associated with both an intervention (or exposure) and the outcome of interest; for example, if people in the experimental group of a controlled trial are younger than those in the control group, it will be difficult to decide whether a lower risk of death in one group is due to the intervention or the difference in ages, age is then said to be a confounder, or a confounding variable; randomisation is used to minimise imbalances in confounding variables between experimental and control groups (2)
- Synonyms: confounder, confounding, confounding variable
content analysis -  is a form of analysis that counts and reports the frequency of concepts/words/behaviours held within the data; the researcher develops brief descriptions of the themes and meanings, called codes; similar codes may be grouped together to form categories (16)
- Synonyms: thematic analysis
content validity -  a test’s ability to measure all the important aspects of the characteristic being measured (5)
context sensitivity -  is an awareness by a qualitative researcher of factors such as values and beliefs that influence cultural behaviours (16)
control group -  a group of subjects which does not receive the experimental treatment but in all other respects is treated in the same way as the experimental group (8)
- Synonyms: healthy controls, controls
convenience sample -  a group of individuals being studied because they are conveniently accessible in some way; this could make them particularly unrepresentative, as they are not a random sample of the whole population (2)
correlation -  a statistical relationship between two variables such that high scores on one factor tend to go with high scores on the other factor (positive correlation) or that high scores on one factor go with low scores on the other factor (negative correlation) (8)
correlation coefficient -  statistic indicating how well two measures vary together; absolute size ranges from 0.0 (no correlation) to 1.00 (perfect correlation) (6)
correlational methods -  research methodologies that determine to what extent two variables, traits, or attributes are related (4)
- Synonyms: correlational research methods, correlational studies
cost-benefit analysis -  an economic analysis that converts effects into the same monetary terms as costs and compares them (2)
- Synonyms: cost-benefit
cost-effectiveness analysis -  an economic analysis that views effects in terms of overall health specific to the problem, and describes the costs for some additional health gain (e.g., cost per additional stroke prevented) (2)
- Synonyms: cost-effectiveness
cost-utility analysis -  an economic analysis that expresses effects as overall health improvement and describes how much it costs for some additional utility gain (e.g., cost per additional quality-adjusted life-year) (2)
countertransference -  circumstances in which a therapist develops personal feelings about a client because of perceived similarity of the client to significant people in the therapist's life (4)
criterion validity -  in psychometrics, criterion validity is a measure of how well one variable or set of variables predicts an outcome based on information from other variables, and will be achieved if a set of measures from a personality test relate to a behavioral criterion on which psychologists agree (11)
- Synonyms: predictive validity
critical appraisal -  the process of assessing and interpreting evidence by systematically considering its validity, results, and relevance (2)
- Synonyms: critically appraising
critical discourse analysis -  analysis of discourse that assumes that language is a means of demonstrating and exercising power (7)
cross-sectional study -  a study measuring the distribution of some characteristic(s) in a population at a particular point in time (in contrast to a longitudinal study) (2)
- Synonyms: cross-sectional design, cross-sectional research
crude mortality rate -  an estimate of the rate at which members of a population die during a specified period; the numerator is the number of people dying during the period; the denominator is the size of the population, usually at the middle of the period (mid-year population) (12)
- Synonyms: crude death rate, crude mortality ratio, crude death ratio
culture-bound disorders -  psychological disorders that are (or thought to be) limited to specific cultural contexts (5)
- Synonyms: culture-bound disorder
debriefing -  a procedure conducted at the end of an experiment in which the researcher provides the participant with as much information about the study as possible and makes sure that no participant leaves feeling confused, upset, or embarrassed (4)
- Synonyms: debrief, debriefed
deep brain stimulation -  a surgical treatment involving the implantation of a medical device called a brain pacemaker, which sends electrical impulses to specific parts of the brain (11)
- Synonyms: DBS
descriptive study -  a study that describes characteristics of a sample of individuals; unlike an experimental study, the investigators do not actively intervene to test a hypothesis, but merely describe the health status or characteristics of a sample from a defined population (2)
- Synonyms: descriptive study design
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -  published by the American Psychiatric Association, offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders (11)
- Synonyms: DSM, DSM-IV, DSM-5, DSM-IV-TR
diathesis-stress hypothesis -  a hypothesis about the cause of certain disorders, such as schizophrenia, that suggests that genetic factors predispose an individual to a certain disorder, but that environmental stress factors must impinge in order for the potential risk to manifest itself (4)
- Synonyms: diathesis-stress model
discourse analysis -  the analysis of discourse that assumes that communication reflects and constructs social reality (7)
distribution -  the collection of values of a variable in the population or the sample (2)
- Synonyms: probability distribution, empirical distribution
dizygotic twins -  twins who develop from two separately fertilized ova (14)
- Synonyms: DZ twins, fraternal twins
double-blind control -  an experimental technique in which biased expectations of experimenters are eliminated by keeping both participants and experimental assistants unaware of which participants have received which treatment (4)
- Synonyms: double-blinded study, double-blinded, double-blind
ecological fallacy -  the assumption that what can be found out about one group of persons, objects or events at one level can be generalised to others at another (7)
effect size -  index of the strength of the relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable that is independent of sample size (6)
effectiveness -  the extent to which a specific intervention, when used under ordinary circumstances, does what it is intended to do; clinical trials that assess effectiveness are sometimes called pragmatic or management trials (2)
efficacy -  the extent to which an intervention produces a beneficial result under ideal conditions; clinical trials that assess efficacy are sometimes called explanatory trials and are restricted to participants who fully co-operate (2)
- Synonyms: efficacious
egodystonic -  referring to aspects of a person's behavior, thoughts, and attitudes that are viewed by the self as repugnant or inconsistent with the total personality (14)
- Synonyms: ego-dystonic
egosyntonic -  referring to aspects of a person's behavior, thoughts, and attitudes that are viewed by the self as acceptable and consistent with the total personality (14)
- Synonyms: ego-syntonic
electrocardiograph -  an instrument that records the activity of the heart (5)
- Synonyms: ECG, EKG
electroconvulsive therapy -  the use of electroconvulsive shock as an effective treatment for severe depression (4)
- Synonyms: ECT
electroencephalogram -  a recording of the electrical activity of the brain (4)
- Synonyms: EEG
emotional intelligence -  type of intelligence defined as the abilities to perceive, appraise, and express emotions accurately and appropriately, to use emotions to facilitate thinking, to understand and analyze emotions, to use emotional knowledge effectively, and to regulate one's emotions to promote both emotional and intellectual growth (4)
empirical approach -  approach to acquiring knowledge that emphasizes direct observation and experimentation as a way of answering questions (6)
- Synonyms: empirical research, empirical study
endocrine system -  the network of glands that manufacture and secrete hormones into the bloodstream (4)
endogenous -  attributable to internal causes; originating or beginning within the organism (14)
enzyme -  a protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body (3)
epidemiology -  in psychiatry, the study of the incidence, distribution, prevalance, and control of mental disorders in a given population (14)
epigenetic -  refers to changes in the regulation of the expression of gene activity without alteration of genetic structure (3)
estrogen -  a female sex hormone, produced by the ovaries, that is responsible for the release of eggs from the ovaries as well as for the development and maintenance of female reproductive structures and secondary sex characteristics (4)
ethnography -  a research method designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study; an ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing the culture of a group (11)
- Synonyms: ethnographic approach, ethnographic research, ethnographic study
etiology -  the causes of, or factors related to, the development of a disorder (4)
- Synonyms: aetiology, etiological, aetiological
evidence-based clinical practice -  an approach to decision-making in which the clinician uses the best evidence available, in consultation with the patient, to decide upon the option which suits that patient best (2)
evidence-based health care -  the conscientious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients or the delivery of health services; current best evidence is up-to-date information from relevant, valid research about the effects of different forms of health care, the potential for harm from exposure to particular agents, the accuracy of diagnostic tests, and the predictive power of prognostic factors (2)
evidence-based medicine -  the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients; the practice of evidence-based medicine means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research (2)
- Synonyms: EBM
exogenous -  attributable to external causes (14)
expectancy effecta -  results that occur when a researcher or observer subtly communicates to participants the kind of behavior he or she expects to find, thereby creating that expected reaction (4)
experimental study -  a study in which the investigators actively intervene to test a hypothesis; in a controlled trial, one type of experiment, the people receiving the treatment being tested are said to be in the experimental group or arm of the trial (2)
experimenter effects -  experimenters’ expectations that may lead them to treat subjects differently in different groups or to record data in a biased manner (6)
exploratory research -  research designed to investigate an area on which little information exists; this includes the use of pilot studies, which are trial runs of an experiment; the aim is to gain more information before doing more thorough research (8)
- Synonyms: exploratory studies, exploratory study
expressed emotion -  the amount of hostility and criticism directed from other people to the patient, usually within a family (14)
- Synonyms: EE
external locus of control -  the tendency to believe that circumstances are not within one’s control but rather are due to luck, fate, or other people (5)
external validity -  the extent to which the results of a research study can be generalized to different populations, settings, and conditions (6)
extinction -  in behaviourism, when a behavior no longer produces predictable consequences, its return to the level of occurrence it had before operant conditioning (4)
face validity -  extent to which a measure seems to measure a phenomenon on face value, or intuition (14)
falsifiability -  the ability of a theory or hypothesis to be rejected (5)
field experiment -  procedure in which one or more independent variables is manipulated by an observer in a natural setting to determine the effect on behaviour (6)
fMRI -  a brain imaging technique that combines benefits of both MRI and PET scans by detecting magnetic changes in the flow of blood to cells in the brain (4)
- Synonyms: functional MRI, functional magnetic resonance imaging
focus group -  groups of respondents who are interviewed together and provide information/insight into matters of interest (7)
- Synonyms: focus groups
framework analysis -  is is where the objectives of the investigation are set in advance and shaped by the information requirements of the funding body; the thematic framework for the content analysis is identified before the research commences (a priori) (16)
frontal lobe -  region of the brain located above the lateral fissure and in front of the central sulcus; involved in motor control and cognitive activities (4)
gender dysphoria -  clinical term referring to the various symptoms of malaise regarding one's assigned gender/sex (17)
gender expression -  how a person represents or expresses one’s gender identity to others, often through behavior, clothing, hairstyles, voice or body characteristics (18)
gender identity -  one's actual, internal sense of being male or female, neither of these, both, etc (17)
gender nonconforming -  a term for individuals whose gender expression is different from societal expectations related to gender (18)
- Synonyms: gender non-conforming, gender nonconformity, gender non-conformity
generalisation -  an inference made from a sample (i.e., results of a study) to a population (8)
- Synonyms: generalization, generalizable, generalisable
genetic inheritance -  transmitted through genes that have been passed from parents to their offspring (children) (3)
genetic predisposition -  increased susceptibility to a particular disease due to the presence of one or more gene mutations, and/or a combination of alleles (haplotype), not necessarily abnormal, that is associated with an increased risk for the disease, and/or a family history that indicates an increased risk for the disease (3)
- Synonyms: genetically predisposed
genome-wide association study -  genome-wide association studies are a way for scientists to identify genes involved in human disease; this method searches the genome for small variations, called single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs (pronounced "snips"), that occur more frequently in people with a particular disease than in people without the disease (3)
- Synonyms: GWAS, gwas, whole genome association study, genome-wide association studies, whole genome association studies
genotype -  a genotype is an individual's collection of genes; the expression of the genotype contributes to the individual's observable traits, called the phenotype (3)
- Synonyms: genotypes
genotype-phenotype correlation -  the association between the presence of a certain mutation or mutations (genotype) and the resulting physical trait, abnormality, or pattern of abnormalities (phenotype). with respect to genetic testing, the frequency with which a certain phenotype is observed in the presence of a specific genotype determines the positive predictive value of the test (3)
gold standard -  the method, procedure, or measurement that is widely accepted as being the best available, against which new developments should be compared (2)
grounded theory -  aims to generate a theory that is 'grounded in' or formed from the data and is based on inductive reasoning; this contrasts with other approaches that stop at the point of describing the participants' experiences; in terms of data analysis grounded theory refers to coding incidents from the data and identifying analytical categories as they emerge from the data, rather then defining them a priori (16)
group dynamics -  the study of how group processes change individual functioning (4)
- Synonyms: group dynamic
haplotype -  a haplotype is a set of DNA variations, or polymorphisms, that tend to be inherited together; information about haplotypes is being collected by the international hapmap project and is used to investigate the influence of genes on disease (3)
- Synonyms: haplotypes
Harris-Benedict formula -  a method used to estimate an individual's basal metabolic rate (BMR) and daily kilocalorie requirements; the estimated BMR value is multiplied by a number that corresponds to the individuals's activity level; the resulting number is the recommended daily kilocalorie intake to maintain current body weight (11)
- Synonyms: Harris-Benedict equation, Harris-Benedict equations
Hawthorne effect -  a distortion of research results caused by the response of subjects to the special attention they receive from researchers (12)
health psychology -  the field of psychology devoted to understanding the ways people stay healthy, the reasons they become ill, and the ways they respond when they become ill (4)
heritability -  a mathematical estimate that indicates how much of a trait’s variation in a population can be attributed to genetic factors (5)
heterogeneity -  1. used in a general sense to describe the variation in, or diversity of, participants, interventions, and measurement of outcomes across a set of studies, or the variation in internal validity of those studies; 2. used specifically, as statistical heterogeneity, to describe the degree of variation in the effect estimates from a set of studies; also used to indicate the presence of variability among studies beyond the amount expected due solely to the play of chance (2)
heterogeneous -  used to describe a set of studies or participants with sizeable heterogeneity; the opposite of homogeneous (2)
hippocampus -  a part of the limbic system involved in memory (5)
homogeneous -  1. used in a general sense to mean that the participants, interventions, and measurement of outcomes are similar across a set of studies; 2. used specifically to describe the effect estimates from a set of studies where they do not vary more than would be expected by chance (2)
hormones -  chemicals that are produced in glands and released into the bloodstream, involved in regulating body growth, mood, and sexual characteristics (4, 5)
- Synonyms: hormone
human behavior genetics -  the area of study that evaluates the genetic component of individual differences in behaviors and traits (4)
- Synonyms: human behaviour genetics, human behavioral genetics, human behavioural genetics, behavioral genetics, behavioural genetics
hyperglycemia -  higher than normal amount of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood; hyperglycemia can be a sign of diabetes or other conditions (3)
hyperkalemia -  higher than normal levels of potassium in the circulating blood; associated with kidney failure or sometimes with the use of diuretic drugs (3)
hypoglycemia -  abnormally low blood sugar (3)
hypothalamus -  the brain structure that regulates motivated behavior (such as eating and drinking) and homeostasis (4)
hypothesis -  a tentative and testable explanation of the relationship between two (or more) events or variables; often stated as a prediction that a certain outcome will result from specific conditions (4)
iatrogenic -  induced inadvertently by a physician or surgeon or by medical treatment or diagnostic procedures (e.g., an iatrogenic rash) (3)
ideology -  a set of interrelated beliefs, values, attitudes, and norms that are used to explain and/or justify change or preservation of the status quo (13)
- Synonyms: ideologies
idiopathic -  describes a disease of unknown cause (3)
in vitro -  in the laboratory (outside the body). the opposite of in vivo (in the body) (3)
in vivo -  located or occurring in the body; the opposite of in vitro (located or occurring outside the body) (3)
incentives -  external stimuli or rewards that motivate behavior although they do not relate directly to biological needs (4)
- Synonyms: incentive
incidence -  the number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population; it also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population; it is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time (3)
indicator -  data that indicates or identifies a variable (e.g., if our variable is children’s attitudes to reading, changing patterns of reading among a group of children might be an indicator of that) (7)
- Synonyms: indicators
inference -  the process of making predictions about future events from the accumulation of historical observations of that event, for (e.g., from accumulated observations of swans that are white, I might infer that all swans are white) (7)
insulin sensitivity -  insulin sensitivity describes how sensitive the body is to the effects of insulin; someone said to be insulin sensitive will require smaller amounts of insulin to lower blood glucose levels than someone who has low sensitivity (10)
intent-to-treat -  a strategy for analysing data from a randomised controlled trial; all participants are included in the arm to which they were allocated, whether or not they received (or completed) the intervention given to that arm; ITT analysis prevents bias caused by the loss of participants, which may disrupt the baseline equivalence established by randomisation and which may reflect non-adherence to the protocol (2)
- Synonyms: intention to treat, intent to treat, ITT
inter-rater reliability -  the degree of stability exhibited when a measurement is repeated under identical conditions by different raters;lack of inter-rater reliability may arise from divergences between observers or instability of the attribute being measured (2)
internal consistency -  a measure of reliability; the degree to which a test yields similar scores across its different parts, such as on odd versus even items (4)
internal locus of control -  the tendency to believe that one has control over one’s circumstances (5)
internal validity -  degree to which differences in performance can be attributed unambiguously to an effect of an independent variable, as opposed to an effect of some other (uncontrolled) variable; an internally valid study is free of confounds (6)
internalization -  the process through which children absorb knowledge from the social context (4)
- Synonyms: internalisation
International Statistical Classification of Diseases -  the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes"; maintained by the World Health Organization, the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System (11)
- Synonyms: ICD, ICD-10
interviewer bias -  occurs when the interviewer tries to adjust the wording of a question to fit the respondent or records only selected portions of the respondent’s answers (6)
intra-rater reliability -  the degree of stability exhibited when a measurement is repeated under identical conditions by the same rater; lack of intra-rater reliability may arise from divergences between instruments of measurement, or instability of the attribute being measured (2)
intracellular -  inside a cell (3)
intrafamilial variability -  variability in clinical presentation of a particular disorder among affected individuals within the same immediate or extended family (3)
ketosis -  a condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of ketone bodies in the body tissues and fluids; it is a complication of diabetes mellitus and starvation (3)
lean body mass -  a component of body composition, calculated by subtracting body fat weight from total body weight: total body weight is lean plus fat; LBM has been described as an index superior to total body weight for prescribing proper levels of medications and for assessing metabolic disorders, as body fat is less relevant for metabolism (11)
- Synonyms: LBM, fatfree mass, fat-free mass
leptin -  a hormone secreted by fat cells (5)
lifetime prevalence -  the number of people who will have a disorder at some time in their lives (14)
likert scale -  a technique of asking respondents in questionnaires or interviews to give numeric values to judgements (e.g., on a scale of one to five, where five represents the finest-tasting breakfast cereal there is, where would you rate corn flakes?) (7)
limbic system -  a group of brain structures - including the amygdala, hippocampus, septum, cingulate gyrus, and subcallosal gyrus - hat regulate emotion, basic motivational urges, and memory, as well as major physiological functions (4, 14)
linear trend -  a linear relationship between the independent and the dependent variable, a relationship which can be represented by a straight line (8)
linkage analysis -  the use of several DNA sequence polymorphisms (normal variants) that are near or within a gene of interest to track within a family the inheritance of a disease-causing mutation in that gene (3)
locus coeruleus -  a small area in the brain stem containing norepinephrine neurons (14)
locus of control -  people’s perception of whether or not they have control over circumstances in their lives (5)
logistic regression -  a form of regression analysis that models an individual's odds of disease or some other outcome as a function of a risk factor or intervention; it is widely used for dichotomous outcomes, in particular to carry out adjusted analysis (2)
long-term memory -  final phase of memory in which information storage may last from hours to a lifetime (14)
- Synonyms: LTM
longitudinal study -  a research study that involves repeated observations of the same variables over long periods of time — often many decades (11)
- Synonyms: longitudinal research, longitudinal studies
magnetic resonance imaging -  a procedure in which a magnet linked to a computer is used to create detailed pictures of areas inside the body (3)
- Synonyms: MRI
matched-subjects design -  a class of between-subjects design in which the subjects are matched on one or more relevant characteristics; this design is used to reduce between groups variability (8)
matching -  in a case-control study, choosing one or more controls with particular matching attributes for each case; researchers match cases and controls according to particular variables that are thought to be important, such as age and sex (2)
median -  the value of the observation that comes half way when the observations are ranked in order (2)
menarche -  the onset of menstruation (4)
meta-analysis -  the use of statistical techniques in a systematic review to integrate the results of included studies; sometimes misused as a synonym for systematic reviews, where the review includes a meta-analysis (2)
- Synonyms: meta-analyses
metabolite -  a product of metabolic action (14)
methodology -  methodology is concerned with the assembly of research tools and the application of appropriate research rules (7)
misinformation effect -  the tendency for recollections of events to be distorted by information given after the event occurred (5)
mixed methodology -  employs both qualitative and quantitative data; pragmatically brings together viewpoints, single with multiple realities, neutrality with commitment, deduction and induction, logic and imagination (7)
monoamine -  an organic compound containing nitrogen in one amino group (NH); some of the known neurotransmitters of the central nervous system, collectively called brain amines, are catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine), serotonin, and indoleamines, which are monoamines that have been implicated in the mood disorders (14)
monogenic -  traits determined by a single gene (5)
monozygotic twins -  genetically identical siblings who share 100 percent of their genes because they developed from a single fertilized egg in utero (14)
- Synonyms: identical twins, MZ twins
morbidity -  illness or harm (2)
mortality -  death (2)
motor cortex -  the region of the cerebral cortex that controls the action of the body's voluntary muscles (4)
multifactorial inheritance -  the combined contribution of one or more often unspecified genes and environmental factors, often unknown, in the causation of a particular trait or disease (3)
multiple comparisons -  the performance of multiple analyses on the same data; multiple statistical comparisons increase the probability of making a type I error (i.e., attributing a difference to an intervention when chance is a reasonable explanation) (2)
multivariate analysis -  measuring the impact of more than one variable at a time while analysing a set of data (e.g., looking at the impact of age, sex, and occupation on a particular outcome. performed using regression analysis) (2)
- Synonyms: multivariate analyses
narrative analysis -  analysis that assumes that the personal voice reflects the priorities, concerns, values and attitudes of the respondent (7)
naturalistic observation -  a form of observational research in which the observer records information about naturally occurring behaviour while attempting not to intervene or affect the behaviour in any way (8)
negative association -  a relationship between two characteristics, such that as one changes, the other changes in a predictable way; in a negative association, an increase in one quantity corresponds to a decrease in the other; association does not necessarily imply a causal effect (2)
- Synonyms: negatively associated
negative correlation -  a relationship between two variables – as values for one measure increase, the values of the other measure decrease (6)
- Synonyms: negatively correlated
negative punishment -  a behavior is followed by the removal of an appetitive stimulus, decreasing the probability of that behavior (4)
negative reinforcement -  psychological reinforcement by removal of an unpleasant stimulus when a desired response occurs (1)
neuron -  a cell in the nervous system specialized to receive, process, and/or transmit information to other cells (4)
neuropeptides -  small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other (11)
neurotransmitters -  chemical messengers released from neurons that cross the synapse from one neuron to another, stimulating the other (postsynaptic) neuron (4)
- Synonyms: neurotransmitter
non-experimental research -  research which lacks a true independent variable which is manipulated by the experimenter; useful in situations where it is not possible/ethical to manipulate the variable of interest (8)
- Synonyms: non-experimental study, non-experimental design
non-randomised study -  any quantitative study estimating the effectiveness of an intervention (harm or benefit) that does not use randomisation to allocate units to comparison groups (2)
- Synonyms: non-randomised, non-randomized
normal distribution -  a statistical distribution with known properties commonly used as the basis of models to analyse continuous data; key assumptions in such analyses are that the data are symmetrically distributed about a mean value, and the shape of the distribution can be described using the mean and standard deviation (2)
normative influence -  group effects that arise from individuals' desire to be liked, accepted, and approved of by others (4)
- Synonyms: normative influences
normative investigation -  research efforts designed to describe what is characteristic of a specific age or developmental stage (4)
norms -  standards based on measurements of a large group of people; used for comparing the scores of an individual with those of others within a well-defined group (4)
observational study -  a study in which the investigators do not seek to intervene, and simply observe the course of events; changes or differences in one characteristic (e.g., whether or not people received the intervention of interest) are studied in relation to changes or differences in other characteristic(s) without action by the investigator; there is a greater risk of selection bias than in experimental studies (2)
- Synonyms: observational studies, observational design, observational research
observer bias -  systematic errors in observation often resulting from the observer's expectancies regarding the outcome of a study (i.e., expectancy effects) (6)
occipital lobe -  rearmost region of the brain; contains the primary visual cortex (4)
odds -  a way of expressing the chance of an event, calculated by dividing the number of individuals in a sample who experienced the event by the number for whom it did not occur; for example, if in a sample of 100, 20 people died and 80 people survived the odds of death are 1:4 (2)
odds ratio -  the ratio of the odds of an event in one group to the odds of an event in another group; in studies of treatment effect, the odds in the treatment group are usually divided by the odds in the control group (2)
open clinical trial -  1. a clinical trial in which the investigator and participant are aware which intervention is being used for which participant (i.e., not blinded); random allocation may or may not be used in such trials; 2. a clinical trial in which the investigator decides which intervention is to be used (non-random allocation) (2)
- Synonyms: open label design, open label study, open-label trial, open-label study, open-label design
operant conditioning -  learning in which the probability of a response is changed by a change in its consequences (4)
operational definition -  a definition of something (e.g., a variable, term, or object) in terms of the specific process or set of validation tests used to determine its presence and quantity (11)
- Synonyms: operationalized, operationalised
outcome -  in a research study, a component of a participant's clinical and functional status after an intervention has been applied, that is used to assess the effectiveness of an intervention (2)
outlier -  a value that is out of the expected range (7)
p value -  the probability (ranging from zero to one) that the results observed in a study (or results more extreme) could have occurred by chance (2)
- Synonyms: p values, p-value, p-values
paired design -  a study in which participants or groups of participants are matched (e.g., based on prognostic factors). one member of each pair is then allocated to the experimental (intervention) group and the other to the control group (2)
parasympathetic nervous system -  the division of the autonomic nervous system that lessens physiological arousal and is involved with maintenance; it controls many of the internal organs and is active primarily when the organism is not aroused (14)
- Synonyms: PNS
parietal lobe -  region of the brain behind the frontal lobe and above the lateral fissure; contains somatosensory cortex (4)
penetrance -  in genetics, the probability of a gene or genetic trait being expressed; "complete" penetrance means the gene or genes for a trait are expressed in all the population who have the genes; "incomplete" penetrance means the genetic trait is expressed in only part of the population; the percent penetrance also may change with the age range of the population (3)
performance bias -  systematic differences between intervention groups in care provided apart from the intervention being evaluated; for example, if participants know they are in the control group, they may be more likely to use other forms of care; if care providers are aware of the group a particular participant is in, they might act differently; blinding of study participants (both the recipients and providers of care) is used to protect against performance bias (2)
peripheral nervous system -  the part of the nervous system composed of the spinal and cranial nerves that connect the body's sensory receptors to the CNS and the CNS to the muscles and glands (4)
- Synonyms: PNS
person-years -  the average number of years that each participant is followed up for, multiplied by the number of participants (2)
- Synonyms: person years
personality inventory -  a self-report questionnaire used for personality assessment that includes a series of items about personal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors (4)
phase I trial -  phase i trials assess toxic effects on humans (not many people participate in them, and usually without controls) (2)
- Synonyms: phase I clinical trial
phase III trial -  phase III trials compare the new treatment against standard (or placebo) treatment (usually a full randomised controlled trial); at this point, a drug can be approved for community use (2)
- Synonyms: phase III clinical trial
phase IV trial -  phase IV trial monitors a new treatment in the community, often to evaluate long-term safety and effectiveness (2)
- Synonyms: phase IV clinical trial
phase ll trial -  phase ll trials assess therapeutic benefit (usually involving a few hundred people, usually with controls, but not always) (2)
- Synonyms: phase II clinical trial
phenomenology -  the way in which one perceives and interprets events and one's relationship to them in contrast both to one's objective responses to stimuli and to any inferred unconscious motivation for one's behavior; also : a psychology based on the theory that phenomenology determines behavior (1)
phenotype -  observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism, as determined by both genetic makeup and environmental influences (9)
- Synonyms: phenotypes
pituitary gland -  located in the brain, the gland that secretes growth hormone and influences the secretion of hormones by other endocrine glands (4)
placebo -  an inactive substance or procedure administered to a participant, usually to compare its effects with those of a real drug or other intervention (2)
placebo control -  an experimental condition in which treatment is not administered; it is used in cases where a placebo effect might occur (4)
- Synonyms: placebo controlled
placebo effect -  a change (e.g., in behavior) in the absence of an experimental manipulation (4)
pleiotropy -  multiple, often seemingly unrelated, physical effects caused by a single altered gene or pair of altered genes (3)
- Synonyms: pleiotropic
polygenic trait -  traits influenced by several genes (5)
- Synonyms: polygenic traits
polymorphism -  polymorphism involves one of two or more variants of a particular DNA sequence; the most common type of polymorphism involves variation at a single base pair; polymorphisms can also be much larger in size and involve long stretches of DNA (3)
- Synonyms: polymorphic trait, polymorphic traits
positive correlation -  a relationship between two variables – as values for one measure increase, the values of the other measure also increase (6)
- Synonyms: positively correlated
positive punishment -  in behaviorism, a behavior is followed by the presentation of an aversive stimulus, decreasing the probability of that behavior (4)
positive reinforcement -  in behaviorism, a behavior is followed by the presentation of an appetitive stimulus, increasing the probability of that behavior (4)
positron emission tomography -  brain images produced by a device that obtains detailed pictures of activity in the living brain by recording the radioactivity emitted by cells during different cognitive or behavioral activities (4)
- Synonyms: PET
post hoc analysis -  statistical analyses that are not specified in the trial protocol, and are generally suggested by the data (2)
- Synonyms: unplanned analysis, data-derived analysis, post hoc analyses, unplanned analyses
postsynaptic neuron -  at a synapse, the neuron that receives a neurotransmitter (5)
power -  in clinical trials, power is the probability that a trial will detect, as statistically significant, an intervention effect of a specified size (2)
- Synonyms: statistical power
power structure -  in sociology, the distribution of power in social systems (13)
pragmatic trials -  a trial that aims to test a treatment policy in a "real life" situation, when many people may not receive all of the treatment, and may use other treatments as well; this is as opposed to an explanatory trial, which is done under ideal conditions and is trying to determine whether a therapy has the ability to make a difference at all (i.e., testing its efficacy) (2)
- Synonyms: pragmatic trial
precision -  in statistics: a measure of the likelihood of random errors in the results of a study, meta-analysis or measurement; the greater the precision, the less random error; confidence intervals around the estimate of effect from each study are one way of expressing precision, with a narrower confidence interval meaning more precision (2)
- Synonyms: precise
predictive research -  research designed to find out if the score on a particular measure or a test result corresponds with some other behaviour of interest (e.g., do the results of an IQ test predict how well a person will perform in final exams?) (8)
predisposing mutation -  a gene mutation that increases an individual's susceptibility or predisposition to a certain disease or disorder; when such a mutation is inherited, development of symptoms is more likely but not certain (3)
prefrontal cortex -  the gray matter of the anterior part of the frontal lobe that is highly developed in humans and plays a role in the regulation of complex cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functioning (3)
prejudice -  a positive or negative attitude directed toward people simply because they occupy a particular status (13)
presynaptic -  relating to, occurring in, or being part of a nerve cell by which a wave of excitation is conveyed to a synapse (3)
presynaptic neuron -  at a synapse, the neuron that releases a neurotransmitter (5)
prevalence -  the proportion of a population having a particular condition or characteristic (e.g., the percentage of people in a city with a particular disease, or who smoke) (2)
prevalence study -  a type of cross-sectional study that measures the prevalence of a characteristic (2)
primary data -  data collected by the researcher for the main purposes of the particular project (7)
priming -  an implicit memory effect in which exposure to one stimulus influences a response to another stimulus (11)
proband -  a proband is an individual being studied or reported on; a proband is usually the first affected individual in a family who brings a genetic disorder to the attention of the medical community (3)
program evaluation -  research that seeks to determine whether a change proposed by an institution, government agency, or another unit of society is needed and likely to have an effect as planned or, when implemented, to actually have an effect (6)
prospective study -  a study in which people are identified according to current risk status or exposure, and followed forwards through time to observe outcome; randomised controlled trials are always prospective studies, cohort studies are commonly either prospective or retrospective, whereas case-control studies are usually retrospective (2)
- Synonyms: prospective study design
protein -  molecules made up of amino acids that are needed for the body to function properly; proteins are the basis of body structures such as skin and hair and of substances such as enzymes, cytokines, and antibodies (3)
- Synonyms: proteins
psychodynamic perspective -  a psychological model in which behavior is explained in terms of past experiences and motivational forces; actions are viewed as stemming from inherited instincts, biological drives, and attempts to resolve conflicts between personal needs and social requirements (4)
- Synonyms: psychodynamic perspectives
psychometric testing -  standardized tests to measure interests, attitudes and personality (among others) (8)
- Synonyms: psychometrics, psychometric test, psychometric tests
quantitative data -  quantities and facts that can be presented in numerical form, including data than can be subject to nominal measures (7)
quartiles -  the total group of units of data divided by 4 to make four subgroups or quartiles (7)
- Synonyms: quartile
quasi-experiments -  procedures that resemble those characteristics of true experiments, for example, that some type of intervention or treatment is used and a comparison is provided, but are lacking in the degree of control that is found in true experiments (6)
- Synonyms: quasi-expermetal
quasi-random allocation -  methods of allocating people to a trial that are not random, but were intended to produce similar groups when used to allocate participants (e.g., allocation by the person's date of birth, by the day of the week or month of the year, by a person's medical record number) (2)
- Synonyms: quasi-random
questionnaire -  a set of predetermined questions for all respondents that serves as the primary research instrument in survey research (6)
random allocation -  a method that uses the play of chance to assign participants to comparison groups in a trial (e.g., by using a random numbers table or a computer-generated random sequence); random allocation implies that each individual or unit being entered into a trial has the same chance of receiving each of the possible interventions; it also implies that the probability that an individual will receive a particular intervention is independent of the probability that any other individual will receive the same intervention (2)
- Synonyms: randomly allocated
random sample -  a group of people selected for a study that is representative of the population of interest; this means that everyone in the population has an equal chance of being approached to participate in the survey, and the process is meant to ensure that a sample is as representative of the population as possible; it has less bias than a convenience sample (2)
random sampling -  a procedure in which each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample (8)
randomisation -  the process of randomly allocating participants into one of the arms of a controlled trial (2)
randomised controlled trial -  an experiment in which two or more interventions are compared by being randomly allocated to participants (2)
- Synonyms: randomized controlled trial, randomized controlled trials, randomized-controlled trial
recall bias -  a bias arising from mistakes in recollecting events, both because of failures of memory, and looking at things 'with hindsight' and possibly changed views; people's reports of what is happening to them currently, therefore, can be more accurate than their recall of what happened two years ago and how they felt about it at the time; this bias is a threat to the validity of retrospective studies (2)
- Synonyms: retrospective bias
receptor -  a molecule inside or on the surface of a cell that binds to a specific substance and causes a specific physiologic effect in the cell (3)
regression analysis -  a statistical modelling technique used to estimate or predict the influence of one or more independent variables on a dependent variable, e.g., the effect of age, sex, and educational level on the prevalence of a disease; logistic regression and meta-regression are types of regression analysis (2)
regression toward the mean -  the tendency for extreme states to move toward the average when assessed a second time (5)
reinforcer -  any stimulus that, when made contingent upon a response, increases the probability of that response (4)
- Synonyms: reinforced, reinforcement
reliability -  the degree to which results obtained by a measurement procedure can be replicated; lack of reliability can arise from divergences between observers or measurement instruments, measurement error, or instability in the attribute being measured (2)
repeated-measures design -  research designs in which each subject participates in all conditions of the experiment (i.e., measurement is repeated on the same subject) (6)
- Synonyms: repeated measures design, repeated-measures study
replicability -  the ability of research to repeatedly yield the same results when done by different researchers (5)
reporting bias -  a bias caused by only a subset of all the relevant data being available; studies in which an intervention is not found to be effective are sometimes not published, because of this, systematic reviews that fail to include unpublished studies may overestimate the true effect of an intervention (2)
- Synonyms: publication bias
representative sample -  a sample that corresponds to the population from which it is drawn in terms of age, sex, and other qualities on the variables being studied; our ability to generalize from sample to population is critically dependent on representativeness (5)
- Synonyms: sample is representative, sample representative
response bias -  threat to the representativeness of a sample that occurs when some participants selected to respond to a survey systematically fail to complete the survey (e.g., due to failure to complete a lengthy questionnaire or to comply with a request to participate in a phone survey) (6)
response prevention -  a behavior therapy technique in which the person is discouraged from making an accustomed response; used primarily with compulsive rituals (14)
resting energy expenditure -  energy expenditure measured under resting, although not necessarily basal, conditions (9)
- Synonyms: REE
retrospective study -  a study in which the outcomes have occurred to the participants before the study commenced; case-control studies are usually retrospective, cohort studies sometimes are, randomised controlled trials never are (2)
- Synonyms: retrospective design
risk factor -  an aspect of a person's condition, lifestyle or environment that affects the probability of occurrence of a disease (e.g., cigarette smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer) (2)
risk ratio -  the ratio of risks in two groups; in intervention studies, it is the ratio of the risk in the intervention group to the risk in the control group; a risk ratio of one indicates no difference between comparison groups; for undesirable outcomes, a risk ratio that is less than one indicates that the intervention was effective in reducing the risk of that outcome (2)
sample -  a subgroup selected from a larger group of potential subjects (population) (8)
sample size -  the number of subjects assigned to a treatment condition in an experiment or study (8)
- Synonyms: sample sizes
sampling -  the process of selecting subjects for research (e.g., random sampling, availability sampling) (8)
sampling bias -  a source of error that arises when the sample is not representative of the population that the researcher wants to study (5)
sampling distribution -  the frequency distribution of a statistic obtained from an extremely large number of random samples drawn from a specified population (8)
schemas -  general conceptual frameworks, or clusters of knowledge, regarding objects, people, and situations; knowledge packages that encode generalizations about the structure of the environment (4)
- Synonyms: schema
scientific method -  approach to knowledge that emphasizes empirical rather than intuitive processes, testable hypotheses, systematic and controlled observation of operationally defined phenomena, data collection using accurate and precise instrumentation, valid and reliable measures, and objective reporting of results; scientists tend to be critical and, most importantly, skeptical (6)
scoping -  finding out just what has been published in relation to a topic, activity or issue, "scoping" the literature (7)
secondary data -  data that has been collected by someone other than the researcher (7)
secondary study -  a study of studies: a review of individual studies (each of which is called a primary study); a systematic review is a secondary study (2)
- Synonyms: secondary analysis, secondary analyses
selection bias -  systematic differences between comparison groups in prognosis or responsiveness to treatment; random allocation with adequate concealment of allocation protects against selection bias; other means of selecting who receives the intervention are more prone to bias because decisions may be related to prognosis or responsiveness to treatment; a systematic difference in characteristics between those who are selected for study and those who are not. this affects external validity but not internal validity (2)
selective subject loss -  occurs when subjects are lost differentially across the conditions of the experiment as the result of some characteristic of each subject that is related to the outcome of the study (6)
self-actualization -  a concept in personality psychology referring to a person's constant striving to realize his or her potential and to develop inherent talents and capabilities (4)
self-awareness -  the top level of consciousness; cognizance of the autobiographical character of personally experienced events (4)
self-concept -  a person's mental model of his or her abilities and attributes (4)
self-efficacy -  the set of beliefs that one can perform adequately in a particular situation (4)
self-esteem -  a generalized evaluative attitude toward the self that influences both moods and behavior and that exerts a powerful effect on a range of personal and social behaviors (4)
self-fulfilling prophecy -  a prediction made about some future behavior or event that modifies interactions so as to produce what is expected (4)
self-monitoring -  method of assessment in which a client records the number of times per day that he or she engages in a specific behavior and the conditions surrounding the behavior; in behavioral assessment, a procedure whereby the individual observes and reports certain aspects of his or her own behavior, thoughts or emotions (14)
- Synonyms: self-monitor, self-monitored
self-report data -  information that people being surveyed give about themselves (5)
- Synonyms: self-report, self-reported
sensitivity -  in psychology/physiology, the extent to which a particular stimulus arouses a response; in screening/diagnostic tests, a measure of a test’s ability to correctly detect people with the disease; it is the proportion of diseased cases that are correctly identified by the test (2,9)
set-shifting -  set-shifting is the ability to move back and forth between tasks, operations, or mental sets in response to changing goals or environmental experiences (15)
- Synonyms: set shifting
skew -  in statistics: the degree to which data might lean to one side or the other of the centre in a distribution; data can be "skewed", meaning it deviates from the normal (symmetrical) distribution and tends to have a long tail on one side or the other (7)
- Synonyms: skewed
snowball sampling -  respondents identify other possible respondents for the researcher (7)
social desirability -  in completion of personality inventories/surveys, the tendency of the responder to give what he or she considers the socially acceptable answer, whether or not it is accurate (14)
- Synonyms: social desirability bias
spread -  statistics: how the data spreads out from the mean, (i.e., whether it closely clusters around the mean or whether it ranges widely across the possibilities in the distribution) (7)
standard deviation -  the average distance of values from the mean; indicates approximately how far on the average scores differ from the mean; unevenly distributed values will give a higher standard deviation than those fairly evenly distributed around the mean; the lower the standard deviation, the more typical is the mean (6,7)
- Synonyms: SD, stdev
standard error -  the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of a statistic; the standard error is a measure of the variation in the sample statistic over all possible samples of the same size; standard error decreases as the sample size increases (2)
- Synonyms: SE
standardization -  a set of uniform procedures for treating each participant in a test, interview, or experiment or for recording data (4)
- Synonyms: standardisation, standardized, standardised
standardized mortality rate -  standardization is used when comparing mortality in two populations that have different demographic structures; it removes the effect of differences in age (or other confounding variables that affect mortality rate) between the populations (12)
- Synonyms: SMR, standardised mortality rate
statistical noise -  a colloquialism for recognized amounts of unexplained variation in a sample (11)
statistically significant -  a result that is unlikely to have happened by chance; the usual threshold for this judgement is when there is <5% chance that the result occurred by chance; statistical tests produce a p-value used to assess this (2)
- Synonyms: statistical significance, significantly different, statistical difference, significant differences
stratification -  process of grouping the target population into categories or strata, (e.g., gender, family size or age group) (7)
- Synonyms: stratified
structuralism -  belief that frameworks and structures in society constrain the way individuals and groups behave; these structures often derive from the exercise of wealth, influence and political power (7)
structured interview -  a quantitative research method commonly employed in survey research; the aim of this approach is to ensure that each interview is presented with exactly the same questions in the same order (11)
structured observation -  variety of observational methods using intervention in which the degree of control is often less than in field experiments; frequently used by clinical and developmental psychologists when making behavioral assessments (6)
subject bias -  bias that results from the subject’s expectations or the subject’s changing of his or her behavior (5)
subjective utility -  the process of making a decision by estimating the personal value of a decision’s outcome (5)
subjective well-being -  the perception people have about their happiness and satisfaction with life (5)
successive independent samples design -  survey research design in which a series of cross-sectional surveys is done and the same questions are asked of each succeeding sample of respondents (6)
survey -  a method of getting information about a specific behavior, experience, or event by means of interviews or questionnaires (5)
- Synonyms: surveys
survey research -  research using questionnaires or interviews to poll or obtain information (8)
survival analysis -  the analysis of data that measure the time to an event (e.g., death, next episode of disease) (2)
sympathetic nervous system -  part of the autonomic nervous system that creates physiological arousal, such as an increased heart rate when experiencing fear, speeding up the contractions of the blood vessels during extreme cold, slowing those of the intestines during emotional stress, and increasing the heartbeat during exertion (14)
synapse -  the gap between neurons or a neuron and muscle (4)
synaptic transmission -  the relaying of information from one neuron to another across the synaptic gap (4)
syncope -  fainting due to a sudden fall of blood pressure below the level required to maintain oxygenation of brain tissue (3)
systematic review -  a systematic review attempts to identify, appraise and synthesize all the empirical evidence that meets pre-specified eligibility criteria to answer a given research question; researchers conducting systematic reviews use explicit methods aimed at minimizing bias, in order to produce more reliable findings that can be used to inform decision making (2)
t-test -  a statistical test that can be used to determine if two sets of data are significantly different from each other; most commonly applied when the test statistic would follow a normal distribution (11)
- Synonyms: Student's t-test
tachycardia -  a racing of the heart, often associated with high levels of anxiety (14)
tardive dyskinesia -  a neurological and muscular disturbance of older patients who have taken phenothiazines for an extended period of time, marked by involuntary movements of the tongue, face, mouth, or jaw, such as lip smacking and chin wagging (14)
temperament -  innate personality features or dispositions (5)
- Synonyms: temperaments
temporal lobe -  a region of brain found below the lateral fissure; contains auditory cortex (4)
temporal sequence -  the sequence of events in time, used as one of the criteria in evaluating causation – the exposure or intervention must have occurred before the outcome to be a plausible cause of the outcome (2)
- Synonyms: temporally
test-retest reliability -  a measure of the correlation between the scores of the same people on the same test given on two different occasions (4)
testosterone -  a hormone that promotes the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics (3)
thalamus -  a brain structure that relays sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex (4)
third variable problem -  the difficulty in the correlational method of research whereby the relationship between two variables may be attributable to a third factor (14)
thyroid hormones -  the thyroid gland makes hormones T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine) which affect heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and weight (3)
- Synonyms: thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine
time sampling -  selection of observation intervals either systematically or randomly with the goal of obtaining a representative sample of behavior (6)
tolerance -  willingness to accept feelings, habits, or beliefs that are different from your own; psychology: the ability to accept, experience, or survive something harmful or unpleasant; medicine: your body's ability to become adjusted to something (such as a drug) so that its effects are experienced less strongly (1)
top-down processing -  perceptual processes in which information from an individual's past experience, knowledge, expectations, motivations, and background influence the way a perceived object is interpreted and classified (4)
- Synonyms: top-down processes
traits -  characteristic behaviors and feelings that are consistent and long lasting (5)
- Synonyms: trait
trans -  an umbrella term for people whose gender identity, expression or behavior is different from those typically associated with their assigned sex at birth (18)
- Synonyms: trans*
trans man -  refers to a man of transgender experience; he might actively identify as trans, or he might just consider being trans part of his medical history (17)
trans woman -  refers to a woman of transgender experience; she might actively identify herself as trans, or she might just consider being trans part of her medical history (17)
transcranial magnetic stimulation -  a noninvasive procedure for treating severe depression that involves stimulation of the brain by means of a magnetic coil (5)
- Synonyms: TMS, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, rTMS
transcription -  in genetics, transcription is the process of making an RNA copy of a gene sequence (3)
transgender -  commonly used as an umbrella term for people whose gender identity differs from the sex or gender they were assigned at birth, and for those whose gender expression differs from what is culturally expected of them (17)
triangulation -  the use of two different research approaches to check that the data derived from a question under one approach corresponds to data derived from the same question on another (7)
tryptophan -  an essential amino acid and a precursor of serotonin; tryptophan is converted to serotonin, a neurotransmitter essential in regulating appetite, sleep, mood, and pain (3)
- Synonyms: l-tryptophan, L-tryptophan, trp, TRP
twin studies -  studies in which researchers examine trait similarities between identical and fraternal twin pairs to figure out whether that trait might be inherited (5)
- Synonyms: twin study
type I error -  falsely drawn positive conclusion; in diagnostic tests: a conclusion that a person does have the disease or condition being tested, when they actually do not (2)
- Synonyms: type 1 error, false positive
type II error -  falsely drawn negative conclusion; in diagnostic tests: a conclusion that a person does not have the disease or condition being tested, when they actually do (2)
- Synonyms: type 2 error, false negative
unconditioned response -  in classical conditioning, the response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior training or learning (4)
- Synonyms: UR
unconditioned stimulus -  in classical conditioning, the stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response (4)
unstructured interview -  consists of open-ended, general questions that are particular to each person interviewed (14)
validity -  the truthfulness of a measure; the degree to which a measuring instrument measures what it is supposed to measure (6,8)
variability -  the degree to which differences exist among a set of scores; standard deviation is usually used to describe the variability of scores in a sample (8)
variable -  a factor that differs among and between groups of people (e.g., patient characteristics, treatment conditions, and outcome variables); the set of values of a variable in a population or sample is known as a distribution (2)
variable expression -  variation in clinical features (type and severity) of a genetic disorder between individuals with the same gene alteration, even within the same family (3)
- Synonyms: variably expressed
variance -  a measure of the variation shown by a set of observations, equal to the square of the standard deviation (2)
waitlist control -  in a therapy outcome study, a group of people that functions as a control group while an experimental group receives an intervention; the control group later receives the intervention after a waiting period, usually when the study is completed (14)
- Synonyms: wait list control
white matter -  neural tissue especially of the brain and spinal cord that consists largely of myelinated nerve fibers bundled into tracts, has a whitish color, and typically underlies the gray matter (3)
within-groups variability -  a measure of variability based on the variation of subjects treated alike in an experiment (i.e., the subjects are in the same group); the amount of within-groups variability gives a measure of experimental error (8)
within-subject -  a research design that uses each participant as his or her own control; for example, the behavior of an experimental participant before receiving treatment might be compared to his or her behavior after receiving treatment (4)
- Synonyms: within-subjects, within-subjects design, within-subjects study, repeated measures design, repeated measures, repeated measures study
working memory -  a memory resource that is used to accomplish tasks such as reasoning and language comprehension (4)
z-scores -  standard measures used to identify the percentage of a distribution for a particular value from the mean (7)
- Synonyms: z-score, z scores, z score
zero-sum game -  a game in which the success of one player requires the failure of another (13)